The Brain Injury Association of America (BIAA) defines brain injury based on particular cause.
Acquired Brain Injury (ABI) -- An injury to the brain which is not hereditary, congenital, degenerative, or induced by birth trauma. (An ABI occurs after birth.)
,Includes all types of traumatic brain injuries. as well as injuries caused after birth by cerebral vascular accidents (stroke) or loss of oxygen to the brain (hypoxic brain injury).
Causes of ABI:
Anoxic and hypoxic brain injuries are caused when the brain is deprived of oxygen (anoxic) or does not get enough (hypoxic) over a period of time. Without enough oxygen, brain cells begin to die and brain function becomes impaired. Loss of consciousness is a medical emergency.
Common causes of anoxic and hypoxic brain injury include:
NOTE: Injuries to the brain that are progressive (like Alzheimer's or Parkinson's) or present at birth are not considered traumatic or acquired brain injury. (biaa.org)
Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) - An injury to the brain caused by an external force.
Common causes: gunshot wounds, motor vehicle crashes, assaults, or falling. Falls are the major cause of TBI.
Common causes of TBI:
A concussion is a brain injury that can occur from a blow or jolt to the head or body that causes the brain to move rapidly inside the skull.
A study by the American Journal of Sports Medicine cites 300,000 sports-related concussions a year in the USA, with soccer ranking second highest ("heading the ball" is one of the primary causes).
Symptoms are marked by changes to thinking or behavior:
• Loss of consciousness
• Headache / nausea / vomiting
• Double vision
• Balance problems
• Memory loss
• Mood or behavior changes
Depending on severity, a concussion may take days or longer to heal. Play should not resume until full recovery. A second concussion that occurs before the first one has healed can cause long-term health problems.
Sources: cdc.gov; American Journal of Sports Medicine
Common Symptoms of Brain Injury